The Middle Ages
The town shrank and in the eighth century was a tenth of the size that it had been in Roman times. The population took refuge in the amphitheatre and made it a fortress because of increasing insecurity. The Roman ramparts were used as a quarry where everyone helped himself to stone. Some districts, like that of La Fontaine, were abandoned.
Nîmes woke up from 1000 AD onwards. New city walls were built. Trade started again, thanks to vineyards, olives and sheep farming. For several centuries the water flowing through the town resulted in prosperity for tanners, dyers and sellers of cloth.